Movement Disorder Side Effects and Use of Scales Quiz

Test your knowledge on movement disorder side effects that may be present in patients taking atypical antipsychotics, as well as the clinical tools that can help you evaluate these conditions.


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  2. Blair DT, Dauner A. Extrapyramidal symptoms are serious side-effects of antipsychotic and other drugs. Nurse Pract. 1992;17(11):56-67. doi:10.1097/00006205-199211000-00018
  3. Uçok A, Gaebel W. Side effects of atypical antipsychotics: a brief overview. World Psychiatry. 2008;7(1):58-62. doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2008.tb00154.x
  4. Ward KM, Citrome L. Antipsychotic-related movement disorders: drug-induced parkinsonism vs. tardive dyskinesia-key differences in pathophysiology and clinical management. Neurol Ther. 2018;7(2):233-248. doi:10.1007/s40120-018-0105-0
  5. Hirose S. The causes of underdiagnosing akathisia. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(3):547-558. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007027
  6. Pringsheim T, Gardner D, Addington D, et al. The assessment and treatment of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. Can J Psychiatry. 2018;63(11):719-729. doi:10.1177/0706743718760288
  7. Lohr JB, Eidt CA, Abdulrazzaq Alfaraj A, Soliman MA. The clinical challenges of akathisia. CNS Spectr. 2015;20(Suppl 1):1-16. doi:10.1017/S1092852915000838
  8. Barnes TR. A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia. Br J Psychiatry. 1989;154:672-676. doi:10.1192/bjp.154.5.672
  9. Mathews M, Gratz S, Adetunji B, George V, Mathews M, Basil B. Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders: evaluation and treatment. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2005;2(3):36-41.
  10. Janno S, Holi MM, Tuisku K, Wahlbeck K. Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) in a naturalistic schizophrenia population. BMC Neurol. 2005;5(1):5. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-5-5
  1. Loughlin AM, Lin N, Abler V, Carroll B. Tardive dyskinesia among patients using antipsychotic medications in customary clinical care in the United States. PLoS One. 2019;14(6):e0216044. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216044
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia. 3rd ed. American Psychiatric Association; 2020.
  3. Kane JM, Correll CU, Nierenberg AA, Caroff SN, Sajatovic M; Tardive dyskinesia assessment working group. Revisiting the abnormal involuntary movement scale: proceedings from the tardive dyskinesia assessment workshop. J Clin Psychiatry. 2018;79(3):17cs11959. doi:10.4088/JCP.17cs11959
  4. Simpson GM, Angus JW. A rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1970;212:11-19. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1970.tb02066.x
  5. Gervin M, Barnes TRE. Assessment of drug-related movement disorders in schizophrenia. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2000;6(5):332-341. doi:10.1192/apt.6.5.332
  6. Nielsen G, Ricciardi L, Meppelink AM, et al. A simplified version of the psychogenic movement disorders rating scale: the simplified functional movement disorders rating scale (S-FMDRS). Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2017;4:710-716. doi:10.1002/mdc3.12475
  7. Peckham EL, Hallett M. Psychogenic movement disorders. Neurol Clin. 2009;27(3):801-vii. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2009.04.008
  8. Kalachnik JE. Applied monitoring for tardive dyskinesia and other extrapyramidal side effects. Ment Health Clin. 2012;1(7):159–163. doi:10.9740/mhc.n92483 

This resource is intended for educational purposes only and is intended for US health care professionals. Health care professionals should use independent medical judgment. All decisions regarding patient care must be handled by a health care professional and be made based on the unique needs of each patient.

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Approved 02/2024
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